cable forming，cable forming，cable forming，cable forming，The flu pandemic that spiraled around the world a century ago had been under way for a year and a half when a University of Missouri preventive medicine professor made an admission: the effort to fight the disease had been a "dismal failure."Nothing had worked. "We must admit that no measures adopted controlled the course of the pandemic," Mazyck P. Ravenel told an audience of health workers in October, 1919. "It spread with lightning like speed, went where it listed, and ceased its ravages only when available material was exhausted."As Nancy Bristow wrote in her 2012 book, which cited Ravenel's appraisal, "American Pandemic: The Lost Worlds of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic," the pandemic that would kill about 50 million people was the "worst health disaster in recorded history."For those living through today's Covid-19 pandemic, it's small comfort that the 1918-20 outbreaks were much worse -- the worldwide death toll then was more than 10 times larger than the Covid mortality count to date (though the pandemic is far from over).But it should be reassuring that we have tools proven to fight the new disease -- including vaccines. On Monday, the US Food and Drug Administration gave formal approval to the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, which had been authorized last year on an emergency basis, and Americans are starting to get booster shots to prolong immunity to the virus.Now there's no barrier to mandating that people get vaccinated, wrote Jonathan Sackner-Bernstein, a former FDA official. "Not getting the Covid-19 vaccine would be akin to refusing a new breakthrough medicine proven to keep you healthy after a heart attack or to prevent serious complications while being treated for cancer," he noted. "State governments, schools and businesses must mandate vaccinations to protect constituents, students and employees, as well as the public at large -- that is, if we want to base public health actions on rigorously scrutinized scientific data."Does requiring vaccination violate the US Constitution, as some anti-vaxxers have insisted? Not at all, wrote Marci Hamilton and Dr. Paul Offit. "The Constitution is not a suicide pact guaranteeing a right to harm others. The government has latitude to protect citizens from deadly conditions, especially when the science supporting vaccination is so clear."Delta Air Lines told employees they would have to pay a health insurance surcharge of up to $200 a month if they refuse the shot. That's exactly right, wrote John Banzhaf III, a pioneering crusader against smoking. "Covid-19 is now an 'epidemic of the unvaccinated.' But we the vaccinated are still being unnecessarily exposed to the risks -- however small -- of illness, hospitalization, 'long covid' and death. We the vaccinated have to wear masks in many places like offices and airplanes where masks would probably not be required if most Americans had their shots. And the vaccinated are unfortunately also being forced to bear most of the financial costs so that some can remain refusers.""Let's stop coddling the minority, and hold the unvaccinated responsible for the consequences of their own deadly decisions."Last weekend, former President Donald Trump publicly endorsed vaccination -- only to run into pushback from some of his normally loyal fans, as Nicole Hemmer noted. "It's good. I did it. Take the vaccines," Trump told an Alabama rally. Hemmer observed, "The crowd, which had been cheering Trump up to that point, suddenly lost its unitary glee. A portion of the rallygoers started to boo, not with Trump but at him. 'No, that's OK. That's all right. You got your freedoms,' he said, quickly seeming to recalibrate. 'I just happened to take the vaccine.'"